The botanical definition of a berry is a fleshy fruit produced from a single flower and containing one ovary. Grapes and bananas are two common examples. The berry is the most common type of fleshy fruit in which the entire ovary wall ripens into an edible pericarp. They may have one or more carpels. The seeds are usually embedded in the fleshy interior of the ovary, but there are some non-fleshy exceptions, such as peppers, that have air rather than pulp around their seeds.
Raspberries belong to the rose family of plants, which houses some of the world's most beloved fruits including apples, apricots, blackberries, cherries, loquats, peaches, pears, plums, and strawberries. Almonds also belong to this diverse family of plants. There are over 200 species of raspberries, all belonging to the scientific genus called Rubus. Fortunately, however, many of the raspberry species that are grown commercially can be placed into one of three basic groups: red raspberries, black raspberries, and purple raspberries. Like their name implies, mature red raspberries can typically be identified by the shade of red in their color, although this red may veer toward the pinkish side. Among all commercially cultivated raspberries, Rubus idaeus or European red raspberry is among the most common. Black raspberries may actually be dark enough to be indistinguishable from blackberries in terms of color. Here one of the most common commercially grown species is Rubus occidentalis, also sometimes referred to as thimbleberry, scotch cap, or black cap. The third category of raspberry—purple raspberry—is a category in which reds and blacks have been hybridized (naturally combined). Over time, when red raspberries or black raspberries underwent naturally genetic mutations, yellow raspberries also developed. Even though naturally yellow or golden in color, yellow raspberries are actually special forms of red or black raspberries.